Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan

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Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan

Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan, 1 April 1936 – 10 October 2021,was a Pakistani politician who served from 1936 to 2021. A. Q. Khan, also known as NI, HI, FPAS, DEng, was a Pakistani nuclear physicist and metallurgical engineer recognised as the “founder of Pakistan’s atomic weapons programme.”

Khan, an émigré from India who moved to Pakistan in 1952, had his education at Western European technical institutions’ metallurgical engineering departments, where he pioneered studies in phase transitions of metallic alloys, uranium metallurgy, and isotope separation using gas centrifuges.

Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan is a well-known nuclear physicist

Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan is a well-known nuclear physicist and metallurgical engineer from Pakistan. He is generally credited for developing gas centrifuge enrichment technology for Pakistan’s nuclear deterrence. Pakistan’s nuclear-weapons development is a source of national pride for the country. A.Q. Khan, who oversaw Pakistan’s nuclear programme for 25 years, is revered as the country’s “father.” Early Years and Professional Career:
Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan was born in the Indian city of Bhopal in 1936. In 1947, he and his family moved to Pakistan. Khan attended D. J. Science College in Karachi after graduating from St. Anthony’s High School, where he studied physics and mathematics.

Khan had a close and friendly connection with President General Mohammad Khatami

Following graduation, Khan got a position as a weight and measure inspector in Karachi. In the 1970s, he quit and moved to work in the Netherlands. Khan rose to prominence as a gifted scientist at the nuclear power facility where he worked. He had unique access to the URENCO facility’s most restricted regions. He was also able to access classified information on gas centrifuge technology.
In December 1974, he returned to Pakistan and attempted to persuade Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto to use Uranium rather than Plutonium in the construction of nuclear weapons. According to accounts in the media, A.Q. Qadeer Khan had a close and friendly connection with President General Mohammad Khatami.

Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan reorganized Pakistan’s national space agency, SUPARCO

Dr Abdul Qadeer reorganized Pakistan’s national space agency, SUPARCO, after his participation in the country’s nuclear program. Khan was a key figure in Pakistan’s space program in the late 1990s, especially in the development of Pakistan’s first Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and the Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV). The Pakistani government was humiliated by Khan’s unrestrained public display of Pakistan’s nuclear weapons and ballistic missile capability. The US began to suspect that Pakistan was providing nuclear weapons technology to North Korea in return for ballistic missile technology. Following the September 11, 2001 terrorist strikes in the United States, Khan came under increased investigation.

Engineering degrees to Pakistan’s institutions

In addition, he has a street named after him. As a result, Khan was instrumental in bringing metallurgical engineering degrees to Pakistan’s institutions.

Despite his worldwide reputation, Khan remains popular among Pakistanis and is regarded as one of the country’s most prominent and renowned scientists.

Khan joined his country’s clandestine attempts to build atomic weapons after learning about India’s ‘Smiling Buddha’ nuclear test in 1974. He formed the Khan Research Laboratories (KRL) in 1976 and served as its top scientist and director for many years.

Musharraf government debriefed in January 2004

Khan was debriefed by the Musharraf government in January 2004 about evidence of nuclear proliferation provided by the Bush administration of the United States. Khan acknowledged his participation in operating the proliferation network[vague], only to reverse his comments later when he made charges against Pakistan’s former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto’s regime in 1990.

President Musharraf was also accused of being involved in the 2008 scandal.

Khan was accused of unlawfully selling nuclear secrets and was placed under house arrest until he confessed and was pardoned by then-President Gen. Pervez Musharraf in 2004. Khan successfully launched a case against the Federal Government of Pakistan at the Islamabad High Court, which deemed his debriefing illegal and released him on February 6, 2009, after years of house imprisonment.The verdict was met with disapproval in the United States, with the Obama administration issuing a formal statement stating that Khan remained a “serious proliferation danger.”

Early years and employment

Abdul Qadeer Khan was born on April 1, 1936, in Bhopal, which was then part of the British Indian princely state of Bhopal and is today the capital of Madhya Pradesh. His ancestors are from the Orakzai tribe (a Pashtun tribe). Abdul Ghafoor, his father, was a schoolteacher who formerly worked for the Ministry of Education, and Zulekha, his mother, was a homemaker with a strong religious conviction. During the violent partition of India (cutting off the sovereign state of Pakistan) in 1947, his elder siblings and other family members moved to Pakistan.

She would write to Khan’s parents about their new life in Pakistan on a regular basis.

Khan fled from India to Pakistan

Dr fled from India to Pakistan aboard the Sind Mail train in 1952 after matriculating from a small school in Bhopal, partially owing to reservation politics at the time, and religious violence in India during his childhood had made a lasting effect on his world view.

Khan temporarily attended the D. J. Science College after arriving in Karachi with his family before transferring to the University of Karachi, where he earned a Bachelor of Science (BSc) in physics with a focus in solid-state physics in 1956.

Working as an inspector

He worked as an Inspector of Weights and Measures for the Karachi Metropolitan Corporation (city government) from 1956 to 1959, and he sought a scholarship to study in West Germany at that time. Khan moved to West Germany in 1961 to study material science at the Technical University of West Berlin, where he excelled academically in metallurgy courses, but he left West Berlin in 1965 when he transferred to the Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Khan earned an engineer’s degree in materials technology in 1967, which is comparable to a Master of Science (MS) in English-speaking countries like Pakistan.

Uranium enrichment

Uranium enrichment is a challenging procedure since uranium in its normal condition only contains 0.71 percent fissile uranium-235 (U235), 99.3 percent non-fissile uranium-238 (U238), and 0.0055 per cent non-fissile uranium-234 (U234). By rotating the uranium hexafluoride (UF6) gas at up to 100,000 revolutions per minute, the Urenco Group was able to electromagnetically separate the isotopes U234, U235, and U238 from sublimed raw uranium (rpm). Khan, whose research was centred on the physical metallurgy of the uranium metal,finally focused his efforts on increasing the quality of uranium.

Initiation with a smiling Buddha

Operation Smiling Buddha, Project-706, and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the Father of the Nuclear Weapons Program are the main articles.
Khan sought to help construct an atomic weapon after learning about India’s surprise nuclear test, dubbed “Smiling Buddha,” in May 1974. He visited with authorities at the Pakistani Embassy in The Hague, who discouraged him by telling him it was “impossible to obtain” a position as a “metallurgist” at PAEC.
Khan sent a letter to the Prime Minister’s Secretariat through the Pakistani embassy in August 1974, but it went undetected. In September 1974, Khan sent another letter through the Pakistani ambassador to the Prime Minister’s Secretariat.

Classified crash weapons programme led by Munir Ahmad Khan

Unbeknownst to Khan, his country’s scientists had been working on the feasibility of the atomic bomb under a classified crash weapons programme led by Munir Ahmad Khan, a reactor physicist, since January 20, 1972, casting doubt on his “father-of” claim. Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto had his military secretary do a security check on Khan, who was unknown at the time and instructed PAEC to deploy a team led by Bashiruddin Mahmood to visit Khan at his family home in Almelo and deliver Bhutto’s letter to him in Islamabad.

Khan arrived in December 1974 and immediately took a cab to the Prime Minister’s Secretariat. In the presence of Ghulam Ishaq Khan, Agha Shahi, and Mubashir Hassan, he met with Prime Minister Bhutto and discussed the significance of highly enriched uranium, with Bhutto remarking, “He appears to make sense.

The next day, Khan met with Munir Ahmad and other top scientists to discuss the manufacture of highly enriched uranium (HEU), as opposed to weapon-grade plutonium, and to explain to Bhutto why he believed “plutonium” would not work.

Advised by Bhutto administration to stay in the Netherland

Khan was later advised by several officials in the Bhutto administration to stay in the Netherlands to learn more about centrifuge technology while continuing to provide consultation on Mahmood’s Project-706 enrichment program.By December 1975, Urenco Group had become suspicious of Khan’s indiscreet open sessions with Mahmood to instruct him on centrifuge technology, and Khan was transferred to a less sensitive section. Khan became concerned about his safety in the Netherlands and insisted on going home.

The atomic bomb programme and Khan Research Laboratories

Pakistan and WMDs, Rotation around a fixed axis, Gaseous diffusion, and Analytical mechanics are the main articles.

The principles of a Zippe-type gas centrifuge are depicted in this diagram, with U-238 in dark blue and U-235 in light blue.
Khan joined the atomic bomb programme in April 1976 and worked in the enrichment section, first cooperating with physical chemist Khalil Qureshi.
His calculations were significant contributions to centrifuges and a key connection to nuclear weapon development, but despite the fact that it was a low priority, he continued to press for his views on the possibility of weapon-grade uranium.

Military-grade plutonium

The majority of efforts are still focused on producing military-grade plutonium. Khan declined to engage in additional computations, causing conflicts with other researchers, due to his interest in uranium metallurgy and his displeasure at being passed over for director of the uranium division (the post was eventually awarded to Bashiruddin Mahmood). Khan became dissatisfied and bored with Mahmood’s study and eventually presented a negative assessment to Bhutto, explaining that the “enrichment program” was far from a success.

Bhutto saw a tremendous risk in the report, since the scientists were split between military-grade uranium and plutonium, and told Khan to take over the enrichment section from Mahmood, who had established the Engineering Research Laboratories to isolate the program from PAEC (ERL). The ERL was directly under the Army’s Corps of Engineers, with Khan as its head scientist, and army engineers identified the national site for the enrichment program on remote grounds in Kahuta as an excellent place for avoiding mishaps.

A rudimentary understanding of the Manhattan Project

Even though Alam had never seen a centrifuge and only had a rudimentary understanding of the Manhattan Project, the PAEC did not abandon its electromagnetic isotope separation effort, and a parallel program was directed by G. D. Alam at the Air Research Laboratories (ARL) at Chaklala Air Force Base. During this time, Alam accomplished a great feat by perfectly balancing the rotation of the first-generation centrifuge to 30,000 rpm and was immediately dispatched to ERL, which was experiencing numerous setbacks in establishing its own program under Khan’s direction based on centrifuge technology dependent on Urenco’s methods.

After Khan and Alam succeeded in separating the 235U and 238U isotopes from raw natural uranium, Khan committed to working on problems involving differential equations concerning the rotation around a fixed axis to perfectly balance the machine under the influence of gravity, and the design of the first generation of centrifuges became functional. Khan’s scientific skill was highly known in military circles, and he was given the title “Centrifuge Khan” and the national laboratory was renamed after him during President Muhammad Zia-ul-visit Haq’s in 1983. Khan was never in control of the actual designs of the nuclear weapons, despite his role.

Munir Ahmad Khan and the PAEC

Munir Ahmad Khan and the PAEC were in charge of their calculations and eventual weapons testing, which remained under Munir Ahmad Khan’s direction.

Senior scientists at the PAEC who worked with and under him recall him as “an egomaniacal lightweight” who liked to exaggerate his scientific accomplishments in centrifuges. Munir Khan stated at one time, “The majority of scientists working on atomic bomb research programs were highly “serious.” The weight of what they don’t know brought them to their senses;Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan is a showman.” Khan authored articles on analytical mechanics of rotational mass balance and thermodynamics with mathematical models during the bomb program’s chronology effort to participate, but he fell short of impressing his fellow theorists at PAEC and the physics community in general. Khan eventually became a harsh critic of Munir Khan’s physics research, and he tried unsuccessfully several times to minimize Munir Khan’s participation in the atomic bomb programs. Over the years, their scientific competition became well-known in the physics community and in seminars conducted around the country.

Chagai-I nuclear testing

Chagai-I is the main article.

The nuclear weapons test Chagai-I

The nuclear weapons test Chagai-I, which took place in the Ras Koh Hills of the Sulaiman Mountains in May 1998, had a visible consequence.

Even with the modest number of centrifuges install, calculations by Tasneem Shah. Which validates by Alam, reveals that Khan’s previous estimate of the amount of uranium. That needs enrichment for the manufacture of weapon-grade uranium was achievable.

The centrifuge designs steal from Urenco Group by Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan. They were, however, signs with significant technical flaws.  And while he purchases some components for examination. The shatters parts, rendering them unsuitable for rapid centrifuge assembly. Alam claimes that its separative work unit (SWU) rate was so poor that it rotates for thousands of RPMs at a cost of millions of dollars to taxpayers.

Tasneem Shah and Alam

Though Khan’s knowledge of copper metallurgy aids in the development of centrifuges. It was the calculations and validation that provids by his team of fellow theorists, including mathematician Tasneem Shah and Alam. Who solves the differential equations relating to rotation around a fixed axis under the influence of gravity. That led Khan to develop the revolutionary centrifuge design.

According to scientists, Khan would not have been able to achieve his goals without the help of Alam and others. This is a contentious issue.When it came to defending the centrifuge technique and really putting effort into it, both Shah and Alam declined, according to Khan’s biographer.

Critical of PAEC’s focus on developing plutonium

Khan was also critical of PAEC’s focus on developing plutonium ‘implosion-type‘ nuclear devices. And advocates for a more straightforward ‘Gun-type’ device. It only needs to work with high-enriched uranium— a design concept for a gun-type device . That Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan eventually submits to the Ministry of Energy (MoE) and Ministry of Defense (MoD)

Despite the fact that many theories think that “plutonium and the fuel cycle has its relevance,” Khan minimized the importance of plutonium, and he insisted on the uranium path to the Bhutto administration when France offered an extraction facility.

Khan was not there to lead the development project to test his country’s first nuclear-weapons .(His reputation as a thorny personality likely plays a role in this after India conducts and its series of nuclear tests, ‘Pokhran-II,’. In 1998, despite the fact that his helps come up with the centrifuge designs and a long-time proponent of the concept.

Khan’s country’s first nuclear test

Khan was able to participate in and observe his country’s first nuclear test, ‘Chagai-I,’ in 1998, thanks to an intervention by Chairman Joint Chiefs General Jehangir Karamat.Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan acknowledges the testing of the boosting fission devices during a press conference. Saying that KRL’s highly enriched uranium (HEU) was utilising in the detonation of Pakistan’s first nuclear devices on May 28, 1998.

Many of Khan’s coworkers were upset that he seemed to relish claiming entire credit for something he had just a minor role in developing, so he responded by writing Torch-Bearers, a News International storey emphasising that he was not alone in the weapon’s creation.

He attempts to work on the Teller–Ulam design for the hydrogen bomb. But military strategists opposes since it went against the government’s minimum credible deterrence strategy. Khan frequently engages in initiatives that were conceptually intriguing but practically impossible to implement.

The Nuclear Proliferation Debate

Khan had been vociferous in the 1970s about building a network to obtain imported electronic elements from Dutch businesses and had little faith in PAEC’s domestic manufacture of materials, despite the government believing PAEC’s claims for the nuclear weapons program’s long-term viability.
When Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan inquired about obtaining uranium hexafluoride (UF6) during a conference in China, the Pakistani government sent it back to China, instructing KRL to utilize UF6 supplied by PAEC.

Khan was approaches by an undisclosing Arab country in 1982

Khan approaches an undisclosing Arab country in 1982. Just  to sell centrifuge technology. Khan was open to the money offer, but one scientist informe the Zia government, which launches an investigation. It was only for Khan to fiercely deny that such an offer bring to him. Major-General Ali Nawab, an engineering officer, charge by the Zia government with keeping tabs on Khan, which he did until 1983. When he resigns from the military, and Khan’s actions remain unnoticing for several years after that.

Disputes in the courts and protests from the United States

Khan investigates by the Dutch government in 1979 on suspicion of nuclear espionage. But he was not prosecuting and owing to a lack of evidence. However, a criminal complaint was filing against him in a municipal court in Amsterdam. And Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan was sentencing to four years in jail in his absence in 1985.
Khan files an appeal after learning of the punishment through his attorney, S.M. Zafar. He workes with the Leuven University administration and successfully demonstrates that the technical material Khan. He was widely available and teach in undergraduate and doctorate physics at the university.

Khan was exonerated by the court

Khan exonerates by the court, which overturned his conviction due to a legal technicality.  In response to the allegations of espionage, Khan stated: “I had requested it since we didn’t have our own library at KRL at the time. All of the research [at Kahuta] was the result of our creativity and perseverance. Although we did not acquire any technical ‘know-how’ from outside the country, we cannot rule out the usage of books, periodicals, and research papers in this regard.”

Pressure from the Reagan administration

In 1979, the Zia administration, which was attempting to conceal their nuclear capability in order to avoid pressure from the Reagan administration in the United States (US), nearly lost patience with Khan when he reportedly.He allegedly sought to meet with a local journalist to disclose the enrichment program’s existence.

During the Indian military drill Operation Brasstacks in 1987, Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan gives another interview to the local press. Claiming that “the Americans had been fully informed of the success of Pakistan’s atomic quest,”. Apparently validating the technology export hypothesis. President Zia angrily meet with Khan and uses a “strong tone,” warning. Khan serious penalties unless he repudiates all of his comments, which Khan promptly did by calling various news journalists.

Despite Benazir Bhutto’s administration reaching an agreement with the US Clinton administration to cap the programme to 3% enrichment in 1990. Khan appears on Pakistan’s news channels again in 1996. While insisting that “at no stage was the programme of producing 90% weapons-grade enriched uranium ever stopped.”

North Korea, Iran, and Libya are three of the world’s most dangerous countries.

The centrifuges that the US seizes from Libya, as there in the photograph, by Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan. Also known as P1, while working for Urenco Group in the 1970s. The Pakistani government  categorises centrifuge invention and improves designs as classifies for export restriction.

Khan had older centrifuge ideas from his time working with Urenco Group in the 1970s. The US claimed in 1990 that North Korea was exporting extremely sensitive intelligence in return for rocket engines. Khan has accused Benazir Bhutto’s government of giving secret enrichment information on a compact disc (CD) to North Korea on several occasions; these claims refutes by Benazir Bhutto’s staff and military personnel.

Between 1987 and 1989, Khan surreptitiously transmitted centrifuge information to Ira

Between 1987 and 1989, Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan surreptitiously transmits centrifuge information to Iran without informing the Pakistani government. Despite the fact that this is a contentious political topic in Pakistan. In 2003, the European Union pressed Iran to allow more stringent inspections of its nuclear programme, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) discovered an enrichment plant in Natanz, Iran, that employed gas centrifuges based on Urenco Group designs and processes.

The centrifuges there easily recognises as P-1 kinds by IAEA inspectors. Who purchases them “through a foreign middleman in 1989,” and Iranian negotiators hands over the identities of their suppliers.

Khan recognizes as one of them.

Libya negotiates with the US in 2003 to scale back its nuclear program in exchange for the lifting of economic restrictions. Thats imposes by the Iran and Libya Sanctions Act. And transferres centrifuges to the US that American inspectors recognizes as P-1 types.

When Libya turns up a list of its suppliers, the Bush administration starts an inquiry into Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan, concentrating on his personal participation.

Khan was one of them, according to the evidence.

Libya negotiates with the US in 2003 to turn back its nuclear program in exchange. For the lifting of economic restrictions imposes by the Iran and Libya Sanctions Act. And transfers centrifuges to the US that American inspectors recognizes as P-1 types.

When Libya turned up a list of its suppliers, the Bush administration began an inquiry into Khan’s personal participation.

Hearings on security, pardons, and the aftermath

Khan had been a science and technology adviser in Musharraf’s administration since 2001. And had become a public figure with widespread support from his country’s political conservative sector.
The Bush administration allegedly sent over evidence of a nuclear proliferation network to the Musharraf administration in 2003. Implicating Khan’s participation. Khan gets fire from his job on January 31, 2004.  Khan admitted to operating a proliferation network. And providing technology to Iran between 1989 and 1991. As well as North Korea and Libya between 1991 and 1997, on Pakistan Television (PTV).

He was not arresting by Musharraf’s government. But he was subjecting to security hearings. During which he admits to military investigators. Previous Chief of Army Staff General Mirza Aslam Beg  provides permission for technology transfer to Iran.
President Pervez Musharraf pardoned Khan on February 5, 2004, fearing that the case would be politicised by his political opponents. Despite the pardon, Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan had severely harmed the Musharraf administration’s political credibility. As well as the image of the US, which was seeking to win the hearts and minds of local communities.  During the height of the insurgency in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

Sympathetic films on Khan

While Pakistani television news outlets ran sympathetic films on Khan. The country’s opposition parties complains so loudly that the US Embassy in Islamabad. And warns the Bush administration that Musharraf’s successor is less friendly to the US. Due to a strategic assessment that exerting more direct pressure on Musharraf would result in the loss of Musharraf as an ally. But the Bush administration refrained from doing so.

The Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission (WMDC), chaired by Hans Blix. Declared in December 2006 that Khan could not have acted alone “without the Pakistan Government’s knowledge.”

The US government echoed Blix’s remarks, with one unidentified American government intelligence source. It  reported by independent journalist and author Seymour Hersh as saying: “Consider what would happen if Edward Teller made a spur-of-the-moment decision to distribute nuclear technology throughout the globe. Is he truly capable of doing it without the American government’s knowledge? “..
There, the lingering scepticism about Pakistan’s disclosures, politicians in the United States and Europe. He as well as IAEA officials, call for Khan to get interrogation by IAEA investigators in 2007. However, Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz, who remains supportive of Khan and spoke highly of him, dismis the calls.

Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff General Tariq Majid

The security hearings were formally end in 2008 by Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff General Tariq Majid. Who classifying the information of the debriefings. Khan blames former President Pervez Musharraf for the proliferation transactions in an interview in 2008. Referring to Musharraf as the “Big Boss.”  Khan also accuses Benazir Bhutto’s administration of being involving in proliferation in 2012. Citing the fact that she issues “clear directives in this regard.”

Work in the government, academia, and political advocacy

Pakistan’s missile research and development programme is also worth looking at.

Khan ostracises by most of the scientific community. As a result of his vigorous support for nuclear technology sharing. But he was still well-famous in his country’s political and military circles. On President Musharraf’s request, Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan temporarily joined the Musharraf government as a policy consultant on science and technology after quitting the leadership of the Khan Research Laboratories in 2001.

In this position, Khan advocated for greater defense expenditure on his country’s missile program in order to offset perceived threats from India’s missile program. As well as providing space policy advice to the Musharraf government.

Satellites into orbit as an expendable launch mechanism

He proposes that the Ghauri missile system to send satellites into orbit as an expendable launch mechanism.

At the height of the proliferation debate in 2007, Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz paid homage to Khan on state television, saying, “The contributions of [nuclear] scientist… Dr. [Abdul] Qadeer Khan are “unforgettable” for the country.”

Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan award a fellowship by the Pakistan Academy of Sciences in the 1990s. He serve himself as to its president in 1996–97. Khan write two books on material science and begin publishing his essays in the 1980s through KRL.

Khan was a patriotic Pakistani who want to convince the world. That Pakistani scientists are superior to no one in the world, according to Gopal S. Upadhyaya, an Indian metallurgist who attended Khan’s conference and met him together with Kuldip Nayar.  Before joining the faculty of Hamdard University, Khan worked as project director. Of the Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology and was temporarily tenured as a professor of physics. He is still on the university’s board of directors.  Khan later assisted in the establishment of Karachi University’s A. Q. Khan Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering.

The formation of the ‘Tehreek-e-Tahaffuz-e-Pakistan

Khan declared the formation of the ‘Tehreek-e-Tahaffuz-e-Pakistan’ (Trans. ‘Movement for the Protection of Pakistan’) conservative political advocacy organisation in 2012, however it was finishing in 2013.

His work on the nuclear weapons program

During his work on the nuclear weapons program and onwards, Khan faced heated and intense criticism from his fellow theorists, most notably Pervez Hoodbhoy who contested his scientific understanding in quantum physics.In addition, Khan’s false claims that he was the “father” of the atomic bomb project since its inception and his personal attacks on Munir Ahmad Khan caused even greater animosity from his fellow theorists, and most particularly, within the general physics community, such as the Pakistan Physics Society.

on the other hand, the  controversy and his volatile personality. Khan remains a popular public figure. And has been as a symbol of national pride with many in Pakistan who see him as a national hero

Further, he has a good street named after him. As a result, Khan was instrumental in bringing metallurgical engineering degrees to Pakistan’s institutions.

Despite his worldwide reputation, Khan remains popular among Pakistanis. And is regarding as one of the country’s most prominent and famous scientists.

Legacy

In 2017, Khan attended a literary conference with civic society members. Despite the issue, Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan is still a well-liked public figure.
Khan pioneered research in thermal quantum field theory and condensed matter physics during his work on the atomic bomb project. As well as co-authoring publications on chemical reactions involving extremely unstable isotope particles in a controlled physical environment.

Military and civilian challenges

Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan retains his position on contentious technical solutions to military and civilian challenges. Particularly the employment of military technology for civilian benefit. Khan was also a staunch supporter of a nuclear-testing programme and the use of nuclear weapons for defence.

He has defended Pakistan’s nuclear deterrent programme . By claiming that it will save his nation from the fates of Iraq and Libya. Khan reiterated his views on peace through strength in an interview in 2011. And vehemently supported the nuclear weapons development as part of the deterrence doctrine.

“Pakistan’s motivation for nuclear weapons arose from a need to prevent “nuclear blackmail” by India. Had Iraq and Libya been nuclear powers, they wouldn’t have been destroyed in the way we have seen recently. … If (Pakistan) had an [atomic] capability before 1971, we [Pakistanis] would not have lost half of our country after a disgraceful defeat.”

— Abdul Qadeer Khan, the statement on 16 May 2011, published in Newsweek,

Illness and death are inevitable.

Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan was hospitalised to Khan Research Laboratories Hospital on August 26, 2021, after testing positive for COVID-19. Khan died in Islamabad on October 10, 2021. At the age of 85, after being admitted to KRL Hospital with lung issues.

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